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Version: 1.2.0

The Taco Shop Smart Contract

Meet Pedro, our artisan taco chef, who has decided to open a Taco shop on the Tezos blockchain, using a smart contract. He sells two different kinds of tacos: el Clásico and the Especial del Chef.

To help Pedro open his dream taco shop, we will implement a smart contract that will manage supply, pricing & sales of his tacos to the consumers.


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Pricing

Pedro's tacos are a rare delicacy, so their price goes up as the stock for the day begins to deplete.

Each taco kind, has its own max_price that it sells for, and a finite supply for the current sales life-cycle.

For the sake of simplicity, we will not implement the replenishing of the supply after it has run out.

Daily Offer

kindidavailable_stockmax_price
Clásico1n50n50tez
Especial del Chef2n20n75tez

Calculating the Current Purchase Price

The current purchase price is calculated with the following formula:

current_purchase_price = max_price / available_stock

El Clásico

available_stockmax_pricecurrent_purchase_price
50n50tez1tez
20n50tez2.5tez
5n50tez10tez

Especial del chef

available_stockmax_pricecurrent_purchase_price
20n75tez3.75tez
10n75tez7.5tez
5n75tez15tez

Draft a first contract

Designing the Taco Shop's Contract Storage

First think to do when you create a smart contract is think about what gonna be stored onto it. We know that Pedro's Taco Shop serves two kinds of tacos, so we will need to manage stock individually, per kind. Let us define a type, that will keep the stock & max_price per kind in a record with two fields. Additionally, we will want to combine our taco_supply type into a map, consisting of the entire offer of Pedro's shop.

Taco shop's storage

export type taco_supply = { current_stock : nat , max_price : tez };
export type taco_shop_storage = map <nat, taco_supply>;

Now that the storage is defined, let's interact with it.

Selling the Tacos for Free

Create your first entrypoint buy_taco which is doing nothing for now :

@entry
function buy_taco(taco_kind_index: nat, taco_shop_storage: taco_shop_storage): [
list<operation>,
taco_shop_storage
] {
return [list([]), taco_shop_storage]
};

It's already possible to compile your contract by running :

ligo compile contract taco_shop.jsligo

To avoid warning at compilation, change taco_kind_index into _taco_kind_index, it'll tell to the compiler that this variable is authorized to not be used.

A good practice is to scope your contract into a module.

namespace TacoShop {
type taco_supply = { current_stock: nat, max_price: tez };
export type taco_shop_storage = map<nat, taco_supply>;
@entry
function buy_taco(taco_kind_index: nat, taco_shop_storage: taco_shop_storage): [
list<operation>,
taco_shop_storage
] {
return [list([]), taco_shop_storage]
};
};

We export taco_shop_storage to be accessible outside the module/namespace on the next section.

There is an impact onto the compilation, now you have to tell to the compiler which module it need to compile :

ligo compile contract taco_shop.mligo -m TacoShop

Populating our Storage

When deploying contract, it is crucial to provide a correct initial storage value. In our case the storage is type-checked as taco_shop_storage, because the default storage is not directly used in the code, we encourage to declare the type, if your storage mutate, your default_storage will be in error. Reflecting Pedro's daily offer, our storage's value will be defined as follows:

const default_storage: taco_shop_storage = Map.literal (list([
[1n, { current_stock : 50n, max_price : 50tez }],
[2n, { current_stock : 20n, max_price : 75tez }]
]));

The storage value is a map with two bindings (entries) distinguished by their keys 1n and 2n.

Out of curiosity, let's try to use LIGO compile storage command compile this value down to Michelson.

ligo compile storage TacoShop.jsligo default_storage -m TacoShop
# Output:
#
# { Elt 1 (Pair 50 50000000) ; Elt 2 (Pair 20 75000000) }

Our initial storage record is compiled to a Michelson map { Elt 1 (Pair 50 50000000) ; Elt 2 (Pair 20 75000000) } holding the current_stock and max_prize in as a pair.


Implement some logic

Decreasing current_stock when a Taco is Sold

In order to decrease the stock in our contract's storage for a specific taco kind, a few things needs to happen:

  • retrieve the taco_kind from our storage, based on the taco_kind_index provided;
  • subtract the taco_kind.current_stock by 1n;
  • we can find the absolute value of the subtraction above by calling abs (otherwise we would be left with an int);
  • update the storage, and return it.
@entry
function buy_taco(taco_kind_index: nat, taco_shop_storage: taco_shop_storage): [
list<operation>,
taco_shop_storage
] {
/* Retrieve the taco_kind from the contracts storage or fail */
const taco_kind: taco_supply =
match (Map.find_opt (taco_kind_index, taco_shop_storage)) {
when(Some(kind)): kind;
when(None()): (failwith ("Unknown kind of taco"))
};
// Update the storage decreasing the stock by 1n
const taco_shop_storage_updated = Map.update (
taco_kind_index,
(Some (({...taco_kind, current_stock : abs (taco_kind.current_stock - (1n)) }))),
taco_shop_storage );
return [list([]), taco_shop_storage_updated]
};

Making Sure We Get Paid for Our Tacos

In order to make Pedro's taco shop profitable, he needs to stop giving away tacos for free. When a contract is invoked via a transaction, an amount of tezzies to be sent can be specified as well. This amount is accessible within LIGO as Tezos.get_amount.

To make sure we get paid, we will:

  • calculate a current_purchase_price based on the equation specified earlier
  • check if the sent amount matches the current_purchase_price:
    • if not, then our contract will fail (failwith)
    • otherwise, stock for the given taco_kind will be decreased and the payment accepted
@entry
const buy_taco = (taco_kind_index: nat, taco_shop_storage: taco_shop_storage) : [
list<operation>,
taco_shop_storage
] => {
/* Retrieve the taco_kind from the contracts storage or fail */
const taco_kind : taco_supply =
match (Map.find_opt (taco_kind_index, taco_shop_storage)) {
when(Some(kind)): kind;
when(None()): failwith ("Unknown kind of taco")
};
const current_purchase_price : tez = taco_kind.max_price / taco_kind.current_stock ;
/* We won't sell tacos if the amount is not correct */
if ((Tezos.get_amount ()) != current_purchase_price) {
return failwith ("Sorry, the taco you are trying to purchase has a different price")
} else {
/* Update the storage decreasing the stock by 1n */
let taco_shop_storage = Map.update (
taco_kind_index,
(Some (({...taco_kind, current_stock : abs (taco_kind.current_stock - 1n) }))),
taco_shop_storage );
return [list([]), taco_shop_storage]
}
};

Now let's test our function against a few inputs using the LIGO test framework. For that, we will have another file in which will describe our test:

#import "gitlab-pages/docs/tutorials/taco-shop/src/tezos-taco-shop-smart-contract/TacoShop.jsligo" "TacoShop"
function assert_string_failure (res: test_exec_result, expected: string) {
const expected_bis = Test.eval(expected);
match(res) {
when (Fail(x)):
match(x) {
when (Rejected(y)):
assert(Test.michelson_equal(y[0], expected_bis))
when (Balance_too_low(_)):
failwith("contract failed for an unknown reason")
when (Other(_o)):
failwith("contract failed for an unknown reason")
}
when (Success(_s)):
failwith("bad price check")
};
}
const test = (
(_u: unit): unit => {
/* Originate the contract with a initial storage */
let init_storage =
Map.literal(
list(
[
[1n, { current_stock: 50n, max_price: 50000000mutez }],
[2n, { current_stock: 20n, max_price: 75000000mutez }]
]
)
);
const { addr , code , size } =
Test.originate(contract_of(TacoShop), init_storage, 0mutez);
/* Test inputs */
const clasico_kind : parameter_of TacoShop = Buy_taco (1n);
const unknown_kind : parameter_of TacoShop = Buy_taco (3n);
/* Auxiliary function for testing equality in maps */
const eq_in_map = (r: TacoShop.taco_supply, m: TacoShop.taco_shop_storage, k: nat) =>
match(Map.find_opt(k, m)) {
when (None):
false
when (Some(v)):
v.current_stock == r.current_stock && v.max_price == r.max_price
};
/* Purchasing a Taco with 1tez and checking that the stock has been updated */
const ok_case: test_exec_result =
Test.transfer(
addr,
clasico_kind,
1000000mutez
);
match(ok_case) {
when (Success(_s)):
do {
let storage = Test.get_storage(addr);
assert(
eq_in_map(
{ current_stock: 49n, max_price: 50000000mutez },
storage,
1n
)
&& eq_in_map(
{ current_stock: 20n, max_price: 75000000mutez },
storage,
2n
)
);
}
when (Fail(_e)):
failwith("ok test case failed")
};
/* Purchasing an unregistred Taco */
const nok_unknown_kind =
Test.transfer(
addr,
unknown_kind,
1000000mutez
);
assert_string_failure(nok_unknown_kind, "Unknown kind of taco");
/* Attempting to Purchase a Taco with 2tez */
const nok_wrong_price =
Test.transfer(
addr,
clasico_kind,
2000000mutez
);
assert_string_failure(
nok_wrong_price,
"Sorry, the taco you are trying to purchase has a different price"
);
return unit
}
) ();

Let's break it down a little bit:

  • we include the file corresponding to the smart contract we want to test;
  • we define assert_string_failure, a function reading a transfer result and testing against a failure. It also compares the failing data - here, a string - to what we expect it to be;
  • test is actually performing the tests: Originates the taco-shop contract; purchasing a Taco with 1tez and checking that the stock has been updated ; attempting to purchase a Taco with 2tez and trying to purchase an unregistered Taco. An auxiliary function to check equality of values on maps is defined.

checkout the reference page for a more detailed description of the Test API

Now it is time to use the LIGO command test. It will evaluate our smart contract and print the result value of those entries that start with "test":

ligo run test gitlab-pages/docs/tutorials/taco-shop/src/tezos-taco-shop-smart-contract/test.jsligo
# Output:
#
# Everything at the top-level was executed.
# - test exited with value ().

The test passed ! That's it - Pedro can now sell tacos on-chain, thanks to Tezos & LIGO.


💰 Bonus: Accepting Tips above the Taco Purchase Price

If you would like to accept tips in your contract, simply change the following line, depending on your preference.

Without tips

if ((Tezos.get_amount ()) != current_purchase_price)

With tips

if ((Tezos.get_amount ()) >= current_purchase_price)