Next to LIGO’s main pipeline, we use some other libraries, that are in the folder vendors.


This, quite expectedly, defines utilities that are used in LIGO. There are three kinds of utilities, corresponding to their dependencies.

tezos-utils contain utilities that depend on some Tezos libraries.

proto-alpha-utils contain utilities that depend on the compilation of some Tezos protocol. It is very big and thus can’t be compiled in JS. This is because of a dependency to this that we don’t have LIGO in the browser yet.

simple-utils contain most utilities. For instance, in simple-utils are X_list and X_option, that extend the List module and the option type found in Pervasives.

Of particular interest in simple-utils is, a module used pervasively in LIGO’s code-base. It deals with exceptions (and soon enough debugging annotations) in a functional manner. It offers a lot of utilities to build, combine and propagate exceptions. Given it’s used everywhere, that it relies on some advanced features of OCaml (higher order functions, ppx preprocessing) and that it exposes a lot of functions, it’s a good idea to look at this file’s documentation.


tezos-modded is a modded version of Tezos. There are modifications in it that are quite useful (exposing more functions from the protocol, giving more options to functions already defined), but not integrated yet. It should in the end be integrated into the Tezos protocol, but until then, we use this.